Interpreting Must, should and May

In several standards certain terms are used to denote the requirements and recommendations. Often people while interpreting the standards do not pay much attention to them. Use of each word is carefully chosen while drafting the standards. Being in the W3C WCAG and ARIA working groups in the past, I had the opportunity to work […]

Chapter 1: What is WAI ARIA

Web Accessibility Initiative’s Accessible Rich Internet Applications or simply WAI ARIA is a suite of web standards developed by W3C’s ARIA Working Group. WAI ARIA provides a set of attributes called roles, states and properties that can be used by content authors to make the modern digital websites and applications accessible. Because the modern websites […]

Chapter 2: WAI ARIA Roles

WAI ARIA Roles define the type of an element. The element type will be available for free if content authors use native markup elements. In certain cases the native markup will not provide the required role of the element e.g. a <div> element just provides a container. It does not accurately define if it the […]

Chapter 2a: Widget Roles

In some situations developers cannot use certain native markup controls or containers. In such cases developers use alternate methods to create such controls and manipulate them to look and work like the native controls. However these controls cannot semantically convey the type to assistive technologies. In such situations WAI ARIA widget roles try bridging the […]

Chapter 2b: Document Structure Roles

The document structure roles define the structural elements on the page. These roles can be used where the native markup elements cannot be used. In general the document structure roles are non-interactive. Following are the WAI ARIA document structure roles. article columnheader definition directory document group heading img list listitem math note presentation region row […]

Chapter 2c: Landmark Roles

Landmark roles provide navigation mechanism of the page while marking each region of the page. All the screen readers in the market can recognize the regions of the page if the content authors mark them using WAI ARIA landmark roles. All the popular screen readers assigned a specific command to let the users quickly navigate […]

Chapter 3: States and Properties

In a book the title of the book is the main heading and the name of each chapter is the main heading of that page. The headings in the chapter are the sub headings. It is possible that the sub headings can also have sub headings of next level. Say the demographics of India if […]

Chapter 4: WAI ARIA Authoring Practices

ARIA authoring practices is a guide for content authors in creating rich internet applications. This guide explains the implementation pattern of common widgets. While this guide explains the best practices in designing accessible widgets and components, it does not address any specific problems caused by browsers or assistive technologies. The current version of authoring practices […]

Chapter 5: Browse mode and Focus mode

To understand different modes of screen readers, Let us first understand how screen readers work with browsers. Screen reader interaction on browser Once the page loads on the browser, screen reader analyzes the content and presents the same in a linear passion called virtual buffer. The screen reader in fact interact with this virtual buffer […]

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