HTML5 Download Attribute

HTML5 download attribute is new in HTML5 specifications. This attribute allows content authors to allow users to download the file just by clicking the link. HTML5 download attribute is used in <A> and <area> elements.


Using HTML5 download attribute

Many websites allow the users to download an image, a PDF file or a MP3 file. Different browsers allow users to download the file differently or different users may be comfortable with different techniques such as right click and say “save as” the file. This HTML5 download attribute allows the users to directly download the file by clicking or pressing enter on the link instead of navigating to it.

Along with the “href” attribute use the “download” attribute s mentioned in the examples below. Content authors even can specify a different file name for the downloading file. If the file name is not specified along with the download attribute the file will be downloaded with the original file name. Also in the download attribute along with the file name the format is not required to be specified. The format of the original file will be appended to the downloading file automatically.


Values of HTML5 download attribute

The value of the download attribute is the download file. There are no restrictions on the value. If the extension is not specified, the browsers will take the extension from the original file. Similarly if the value of the download attribute is omitted the original file name will be taken by the browser.


Screen reader support for HTML5 download attribute

HTML5 download attribute does not provide any additional hint to a screen reader users as of this date. I have tested with NVDA 2018.2 and JAWS 2018 the latest popular and most update screen readers as of this writing. I wish to have an additional hint directly from the attribute that speaks out to the user to hint “the link will download a file instead of navigating to a different page”. Until the screen reader  provide an additional support to the download attribute, content authors must provide the additional hint when this attribute is used.

Example with PDF

The example below downloads a PDF file with WCAG Level A and Level AA checklist

<br /> <a href="/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/WCAG-20-checklist.pdf" download="Level-A-and-AA-standards">WCAG Checklist</a><br />
WCAG Checklist

Example with image

<br /> <a href="/wp-content/uploads/2017/07/Seeing-AI-menu.png" download="IOSappmenu">download here</a><br />

download here

NVDA 2018.2 is released, Download and What’s new

NVDA the free Windows screen reader by NVAccess released the next version for 2018 i.e NVDA 2018.2 . The release include few new features, bug fixes and developer enhancements.

What’s new in NVDA 2018.2

  • row and column span for table cells is now reported

Support for new languages Mongolian, Swiss German.

  • All of NVDA’s Preferences can now be found in one settings dialog under NVDA Menu -> Preferences -> Settings, rather than scattered throughout many dialogs.
  • NVDA no longer fails to read the page when going back to a previous page in Microsoft Edge.
  • Labels of checkboxes and radio buttons in Chrome and Firefox are no longer reported twice when tabbing or using quick navigation in Browse mode.
  • aria-current with a value of false will be announced as “false” instead of “true”.

Complete list of new features, bug fixes and changes can be found here.

Download or update to NVDA 2018.2

Visit the NVDA download page for NVDA 2018.2. If already have an older version update to 2018.2.

updating to NVDA 2018.2

  1. Press NVDA + n to open NVDA settings.
  2. Navigate to Help by pressing down arrow until you hear Help.
  3. Press right arrow to move into the help menu.
  4. Press down arrow until you hear Check for updates.
  5. Press enter Check for updates and follow the onscreen instructions.

NVDA is an open source and free screen reading solution for Windows operating system. Support the cause by donating to the NVDA project.

Monthly Accessibility Webinar – Start the Digital Accessibility Tour – July 2018

This accessibility webinar is aimed to bring more tech enthusiasts into the space of digital accessibility. Digital accessibility should be included in everything we do. i.e the email we right, the design we create, the interaction we think or the screen / page we develop. Together let us start the journey of digital accessibility and make web a better place for everyone. Already in the space of accessibility? No problem, join us to brush-up the basics. Are you a accessibility enthusiast, feel free to join us.


Rakesh Paladugula
Linkedin profile

Key Takeaways

  • What is digital accessibility ?
  • What are the benefits of digital accessibility?
  • What are the global accessibility standards
  • What are your roles being a Designer / Developer/ QE Engineer / Content Writer/ Program Manager.

Accessibility Webinar Timing

July 10th, 2018

  • 7 : 00 PM IST
  • 9 : 30 AM ET
  • 6 : 30 AM PT

Please fill the signup form below to attend the webinar.

Web Content Accessibility Guidelines WCAG 2.1 is now W3C Recommendation

W3C has notified Web Content Accessibility Guidelines 2.1 (WCAG 2.1) as W3C recommendation on June 5, 2018. This means certain new success criteria are added to existing WCAG 2.0 check-list. Still the W3C’s WCAG 2.0 Level A and Level AA are the recommended set of success criteria. To bridge the gap in the modern web technologies such as mobiles and to increase the use of web more comfortably by people with low vision and cognitive difficulties certain new success criteria are added.

What’s new in WCAG 2.1

There are 17 new success criteria in WCAG 2.1. In this 5 are Level A, 7 Level AA and 5 Level AAA. A new guideline 2.5 Input Modalities has been added to the principle Operable. The guideline 2.3 Seizures is modified to meet the new requirements i.e. 2.3 Seizures and Physical Reactions. A new Success Criterion 2.3.3 Animation from Interactions is included in the guideline.

More information on WCAG 2.1 Level A and AA success criteria

Low vision requirements in WCAG 2.1

1.4.10 Reflow (Level AA)

The intent of this success criteria is to allow the low vision users to use increase browse zoom up to 400% without the loss of most content when scrolled in any one direction. More information on 1.4.10 reflow.

1.4.11 non-text contrast (Level AA)

In WCAG 2.0, certain user interface elements are not clearly defined with color contrast requirements. The states and boundaries of user interface components those defined by author,  parts of graphics that are required to understand the content must have a contrast ratio of 3 : 1. More about 1.4.11 Non-text contrast.

1.4.12 Text Spacing (Level AA)

The intent of this success criteria is to provide enough flexibility for users who want to increase spacing between paragraphs, lines, words or characters can still be able to read the page without the loss of content. Users may use author defined styles or browser bookmarklets or any other features to achieve the required spacing. In addition to low vision users, users who are dyslexic will also benefit with this success criteria. More about 1.4.12 Text Spacing.

1.4.13 Content on hover or focus (Level AA)

The intent of this requirement is to avoid unintended interference of content such as tooltips, modals, popups when user interface element receives keyboard focus or hovered by pointing device. The accessibility problems caused due to these kind of content can be either user is not at all aware of the displayed content or user is not intended for the interaction or the new content may interfere user’s current task. More information about 1.4.13 Content on focus or hover.

4.1.3 Status Messages (Level AA)

Status messages must be made available for blind and low vision users without interrupting their current task. Status messages must be programmatically defined such that the assistive technologies can identify them and present to the user in most convenient way. More about 4.1.3 Status messages.

Cognitive requirements in WCAG 2.1

1.3.5 Identify input purpose (Level AA)

The intent of this success criteria is to provide an easy and personalized solutions when a page have input elements. By providing a meaningful additional information user agents or assistive technologies can provide simplest ways to fill in the data. More information about 1.3.5 Identify input purpose.

Mobile requirements in WCAG 2.1

1.3.4 orientation (Level AA)

In the realm of mobile, many applications provide content different in different orientations. Some content or elements that are available in portrait are not available in landscape or vice versa. Content authors must be aware that some users lock the display orientation of their devices or the devices may be fixed on a specific place such as on the arm of power wheelchair. This success criteria requires content authors to provide the content and elements available in both orientations. The placement or the sequence can be changed but the content and functionality must be made available. More about 1.3.4 Orientation.

2.1.4: Character Key Shortcuts (Level A)

The shortcut keys should not be character dependent. Having characters with only a combination of upper or lower case letters or punctuations may not be useful for users who depend on voice input and keyboard only users. Keyboard users may accidently activate the keys. This success criteria does not prohibit the use of access keys. More information on 2.1.4 Character key shortcuts.

2.5.1 Pointer Gestures (Level A)

The intent of this success criteria is to provide simple gestures to interact with the content. Multi pointing gestures and path based gestures will not be easy for many users and hence may not be benefit with content dependent on these type of gestures. This success criteria does not restrict the gestures supplied by user agents or assistive technologies. More about 2.5.1 Pointer gestures.

2.5.2 Pointer Cancellation (Level A)

The intent of this success criteria is to avoid accidental pointer inputs. Users with disabilities may accidentally focus on an user interface element accidentally that may cause in unwanted results. More information  about  2.5.2 Pointer Cancellation.

2.5.3 Label in Name (Level A)

The intent of this success criteria is to enable users who depend on voice commands to interact with the user interface components. Often the voice commands used by the user will be the visible labels. If the text on the visible label does not match with the accessible label where the accessible label is assigned as voice command the interaction will not be performed. Providing the visible label and accessible name as the same for text and images of text that have visible label will benefit not only mobile users but also users with cognitive difficulties. More about 2.5.3 Label in name.

2.5.4 Motion Actuation (Level A)

Motion actuations such as shaking or tilting should not be the only way of doing a function on the web. Additionally user interface components also should be available on the application to perform the same action. Sometimes the device may be fixed to a table or a wheel chair and motions cannot be performed. A mechanism should also be in place to switch off the motion actuating functions. People who have trimmers may accidentally shake the device which can cause in performing unintended action. More about 2.5.4 Motion actuation.



aria-placeholder (property)

Aria-placeholder property is new in ARIA 1.1 specifications. This property is used to provide a short hint for text input fields when it does not have any text. In other words the string supplied through aria-placeholder should be available whenever the value property of the text field is empty. The hint provided through this property can be a short description, sample text  or a format of the text expected in the input field.

The purpose of aria-label property and aria-placeholder property are different. Content authors should not use this property in place of aria-label.

Aria-placeholder property acts similar to HTML5 placeholder attribute. Here is an article about the accessibility concerns of placeholder attribute.

Screen readers read aloud the hint provided via aria-placeholder property only when the text box does not have a value in it. If a value or text is available in the text box screen reader announces the value instead of placeholder text.

In example one below, screen reader reads the value of text field while in example two it reads the date format (MM/DD/YYYY format) along with the label Birth Date.



Example 1

Example 2

In example 1,

Aria-placeholder used in roles

Aria-placeholder property is used in textbox role and inherits into search role.

Values of aria-placeholder

Aria-placeholder property holds a string whose value is equal to the hint provided for filling data into the text box.

Learning Digital Accessibility in College – Teach Access Curriculum development Awards

Digital accessibility in fact is not a skill that has to be learn on job. It is more doing things right and ensuring that the content created can be reached to everyone. If taught at the college the new generation will include accessibility into their normal coding practice. So, learning digital accessibility at college is the best thing anyone can think, and Teach Access is exactly doing that.

One of my ambitions when I started Maxability is to educate digital accessibility skills to as many people as possible. To achieve this including accessibility as part of  the curriculum is very important. The Teach Access team is exactly doing that. When accessibility becomes the part of curriculum, content authors take “alt” as important as “src” in <image . When this happens digital content will be far more accessible than today.




Teach access curriculum development awards

To accelerate the creation and delivery of accessibility-infused college curricula, Teach Access will be providing direct awards to full-time, part-time, adjunct faculty, or instructional staff at US-based institutions of higher education (community colleges or four-year universities). More information can be found on the teach access curriculum page. The last date to apply is June 4th.

The online application form is available here.


HTML5 Controls Attribute

The controls attribute is new in HTML5. This attribute is specifically intended for HTML5 <audio> and <video> elements.

The HTML5 controls attribute when used on either <audio> or <video> element, it adds few controls on the browser. The controls added are play/pause, volume , seeking and mute/ unmute. A full screen button will be added for video and CC, track buttons if the author provides.

Using the controls attribute

The standard controls attribute can be added to the <audio> or <video> element or can be supplied through javaScript.

Values of HTML5 controls attribute

The controls attribute allows two possible values, true and false. While false is the default value having controls=”true” or just by specifying the controls attribute different audio / video controls can be found on the browser.

Accessibility of the standard Controls

As of this writing the standard controls supplied by HTML5 controls attribute are not accessible on all browsers. The following video can help to test the standard controls.

Accessible Emails for your business

Email marketing, the most prominent way of reaching to potential customers. Potential customers include customers who are older in age, those who have physical, cognitive and sensory disabilities. However these mailers are not reaching a large set of customers. This is because accessible emails are not part of your campaign.

Why is accessible emails relevant for you?

According to The Guardian every 1 in 5 pounds spend in the UK is from those who have age more than 65. This is 20% of the UKs total spending. This will be more or less similar in other developed countries too. The World Health Organization estimates 15% of world’s population lives with some form of disability. This is unrecognized by most of the email advertisements. So, most of the emails are not designed keeping this large population in mind. In addition your business is likely to face high legal risk, many countries have anti-discrimination laws that govern the rights of persons with disabilities, customer loyalty along with the competitive advantage.

What’s the problem?

It is very likely that most of the marketing emails we receive are deleted or moved to trash just by reading the sender or subject. The very few emails that are attractive or relevant for the customer will be attended. If these few emails that are attended by the customer are uncomfortable to read, aren’t you losing the potential customer?

When I say uncomfortable to read or interact means the content you shared have potential accessibility problems. People who have age old difficulties such as poor vision, trimmers in hands or disabilities such as blindness, cognitive, physical disabilities cannot access the content in the email. This means you are ignoring around 35% of the customers, than the customers ignoring the marketing emails.

How can you capture this large untapped market?

Create Accessible Emails

Creating accessible emails is not a charity work or business case, it is the right thing to do. Following are few basic things to consider.

Do not create any mailer that is purely an image. The text imbedded in the image can neither be read by screen readers used by blind users nor can be allowed to increase the text size for low vision users. So, use real text and present the visuals as images.

  1. Use colors wisely. Remember that approximately one in 12 men have color related problems. Users with low vision and age old people add to this count. Do not use colors that are tough to differentiate or those do not have enough color contrast. W3C WCAG 2.0 recommends to have a minimum contrast ratio of 4.5 : 1 between the text color and it’s background.
  2. Do not exclusively depend on sensory characteristics such as shape, size, visual location, orientation or color to convey some information. For instance, for the links available within a paragraph should have an additional identifier such as underline along with change in color. This allows low vision, color blind and users who have cognitive difficulties efficiently identify the link from the surrounding content.
  3. Provide enough clickable / touch target region when the mailers have actionable items such as links or buttons. People may be accessing the emails from phone, those who have trimmers, those who cannot point the mouse in small target region benefit from large clickable area.
  4. Images such as logos or important images that convey meaning must have alternate text description available. This will allow screen reader users to have the right information.
  5. Use HTML semantics for the content. Use h1 to h6 heading elements instead of increasing the font sizes and styles. Use HTML lists instead of design styles to show the list of items. Screen reader users can only understand the meaning supplied through the semantics not the styles.
  6. Actionable elements like links and buttons should clearly express what happens if the user interacts. This should be available visually as well as programmatically.
  7. Other email specific requirements such as clear subject line, getting straight to the point and additional ways of checking the content of the email should be the part of the content.

For more information on other web accessibility guidelines visit the WCAG check-list. Reach-out through our contact form should you have any questions.


Sensitization on Disability & Accessibility

This is an awareness attempt by Maxability to sensitize digital population on disability and accessibility. The third Thursday of May is celebrated as Global Accessibility Awareness Day. We hope this small questioner will start injecting the interest to learn more about accessibility and disability.
We believe that disability is more a socially created problem than the individual’s abilities. It is the stairs that create problem for a physically challenged person, not the wheel chair. This article will provide more insight into the lives of persons with disabilities and how they are connected with the mainstream society.
None of the questions are mandatory. Feel free to skip if you wish to while we encourage to answer all ‘]
The name and email address are collected to share information for any future surveys or webinars Maxability is planning. Feel free to say Don’t store my email address and Name.

Please enter your email:


What is the percent of people with disabilities in the world as per World Health Organization



This is the chart used by an ophthalmologist to estimate the visual acuity of a person.



Can you guess what is the percent of men in the world who have color blindness?



Which one of these days is observed as white cane safety day.

White cane is the universal symbol of blindness.



Wheel chair is the assistive technology for mobility, Do you know what is the assistive technology for persons with blindness for using a mobile phone?



Captions & subtitles are originally meant to be used by deaf and hard of hearing, have you ever used them because you don’t know the language of the video, you are watching the video in busy environment, at office or any other reason?


Have you or anyone you know ever used one or more of the following features on the phone?

Remember these are the accessibility features on your device. (Select all that apply.




Do you know communication in Deaf community is through sign language? The sign language is not universally one. What is your best guess for number of sign languages in the world?




International Day of Persons with Disabilities is on?



Global Accessibility Awareness Day is on?


11. Your Name*

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Global Accessibility Awareness Day GAAD 2018

The 7th edition of Global Accessibility Awareness Day GAAD 2018 is on May 17th. GAAD is marked on third Thursday in May every year. It’s interesting to see the world talking about accessibility and experiencing the problems arising due to inaccessible digital content, and software products. GAAD is also an opportunity for each one of us to understand the problems faced by persons with disabilities. Awareness towards accessibility and sensitivity towards disabilities are the primary objectives of global accessibility awareness day (GAAD). These are the primary objectives for Maxability too and hence we promote GAAD.

Attend a global accessibility awareness day GAAD 2018 in your city. Many companies plan to have an awareness campaigns internal to their organization. Reach-out to HR, Diversity & Inclusion or accessibility teams within your organizations to know more.

No GAAD 2018 events in your city? Your company is not aware of GAAD 2017? Don’t worry, We have some ideas for you. See below how to create awareness yourself and encourage teams around you. Do not forget to check the virtual events on May 17th.

Simple checks to observe GAAD 2018

  • Can a user with wheel chair comfortably reach your work station from the main entrance?
  • Write the sentence “Third Thursday of May every year  is Global Accessibility Awareness Day” on Facebook and post it to public. Wait!!! do this just with keyboard. Some computer users cannot use mouse.
  • Try calling a friend from your smart phone, the challenge is do it in sunlight. This is how low vision users experience the digital content
  • Watch video, just watch it, close your years, experience the difficulty faced by deaf or hard-of-hearing users.
  • If you own a website or a developer/ QA engineer do these simple checks on your websites. It just takes 10 minutes.

Global Accessibility Awareness Day GAAD 2018 events in India


Series of events are planned by Prakat Solutions with Mitra Jyothi, Chancery Pavillion, AWAKE Vishwa Seva Foundation. Visit for more information.


Deque Systems is hosting hackathon on this day. Register and understand more information on integrating aXe into the project life cycle to make websites and application accessible. Deque aXe hackathon for GAAD 2018.

More Information

More awareness information coming, stay tuned on Maxability by subscribing. Like us on Facebook and follow us on twitter.